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Basic Methods of Paint Tinting
 
    We need to know some common sense about colors before we start learning the paint tinting methods. The colors of objects in the nature world vary a lot. People can see the color of obeject because the light of luminous body shines down upon that object.  When light shines down on the object, the radiation energy of light act on the view of our eyes. All non-luminant objects' colors can only be shown when light is shined down upon them. The colors of object is decided by how much the object reflects and absorbs the light shined upon it. One object is shown in green under sunshine because this object mainly reflects the green wavelength inside the white light while absorbing the other spectrum. If this object cannot show itself in green under natrium light, that's because there is no green elements from nadium light for it to reflect. From this, we can conclude that the objects colors we see change with the composition of their luminous bodies. If one object can fully reflect the light, then it will be white to us.  Inversely, if it fully absorbs the light, then it will be black to us.

    Colors are divided into colorful achromatic colors and chromatic colors. Achromatic colors refer to black, white and the different tones grey between black and white. The reflection rate of white-black series achromatic color represents the brightness of objects. The higher the reflection rate is, the object is closer to white. In the contrary, the object is closer to black when the reflection rate is lower. Chromatic color series refer to all other colors excepts for white-black series. The different wavelengths of light spectrum shows the tones of differents colors in vision, like red, orange, yellow, green, cyan, purple, etc.. To describe a certain color precisely, we need to consider three basic properties of colors: color tones, saturation ratio, and brightness. These three properties contribute to an unified total effect. Color tones means which reflected light wavelength inside the spectrum takes advantage. Different wavelengths create different color feelings. Color tones is the basic characteristic that decides the nature of colors. Saturation ratio means the vividness of colors. Color tones, brightness and saturation ratio are three basic properties of colors. Achromatic colors only has the difference in brightness without saturation ratio and color tones properties.

    The color matching of paint follows the theory of subtractive color process. The three primitive colors are yellow, cyan and purple and their complementary colors are blue, red and green. The so-called complementary means mixing two colors at a certain percentage and getting white color. The complementary color of red is cyan, yellow's blue, green's purple. The result of subtractive color theory can be concluded as:

    yellow=white-blue

    purple=white-green

    cyan=white-red

    yellow+purple=white-blue-green=red

    yellow+cyan=white-blue-red=green

    purple+cyan=white-green-red=blue

    yellow+purple+cyan=white-blue-green-red=black

    All these relations shows the sequential adding of paints. The colors you get after mixing has its brightness decreased.

    The paint tinting technology mainly includes solid paint tinting and transparent paint tinting, and so on. Before studing out the color matching formula, do analysis based on color sample or the color of a certain real object. Get to know the color hues, which means how many colors it is composed of, which color is main color, which is secondary color, the relationship between these colors, and how many percentages each color takes up. Then start to study out the color matching formula based on experiences and do preliminary test of hand samples. Then start the paint tinting: first add the main color, and then the secondary color with strong tinting strength, add gradually and keep stirring. Keep observing the color changes. Spray or brush some sample color onto a clean sample board. After the color becomes stable,  compare it to the original color sample. Be sure to follow the principle of "from the shallower to the deeper" during paint tinting.

    From the theory of substrative color process, we can get the below conclusion: if the color is too red compared to the original sample, we can follow substrative color process or add cyan; if too green, we can reduce green or add purple; if too blue, we can reduce blue or add yellow. Vice versa. Because yellow, cyan, purple and blue, red, green are complentary to each other. However, the mixing of these color paints will cause the decrease of the color's brightness. In this case, we can use black and white to adjust the brightness of mixed color.

 
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